Hebrew calendar


The Hebrew calendar (הלוח העברי ha'luach ha'ivri), or Jewish calendar, is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances., It is based on twelve lunar months of twenty-nine or thirty days, with an intercalary lunar month added seven times every nineteen years (once every two to three years) to synchronize the twelve lunar cycles with the slightly longer solar year. Each Jewish lunar month starts with the new moon.

The present counting method for years use the Anno Mundi epoch (Latin for "in the year of the world", לבריאת העולם), abbreviated AM or A.M. and also referred to as the Hebrew era. Hebrew year 5770 began on 19 September 2009 and ended on 8 September 2010. Hebrew year 5771 (a leap year) began on 9 September 2010 and ends on 28 September 2011.

Data/Images/calendar.pngThe twelve regular months are: Nisan (30 days), Iyar (29 days), Sivan (30 days), Tammuz (29 days), Av (30 days), Elul (29 days), Tishrei (30 days), Marcheshvan (29 or 30 days), Kislev (29 or 30 days), Tevet (29 days), Shevat (30 days), and Adar (29 days). In the leap years (such as 5771) an additional month, Adar I (30 days) is added after Shevat, and the regular Adar is referred to as "Adar II".

There is a weekly cycle of seven days, mirroring the seven-day period of the Book of Genesis in which the world is created. The names for the days of the week, like those in the Creation story, are simply the day number within the week, with Shabbat being the seventh day.

The Hebrew calendar follows a seven-day weekly cycle, which runs concurrently but independently of the monthly and annual cycles. The names for the days of the week are simply the day number within the week. In Hebrew, these names may be abbreviated using the numerical value of the Hebrew letters, for example יום א׳ (Day 1, or Yom Rishon (יום ראשון)):

  1. Yom Rishon - יום ראשון (abbreviated יום א׳) = "first day" = Sunday (starting at preceding sunset)
  2. Yom Sheni - יום שני (abbr. יום ב׳) = "second day" = Monday
  3. Yom Shlishi - יום שלישי (abbr. יום ג׳) = "third day" = Tuesday
  4. Yom Revi'i - יום רבעי (abbr. יום ד׳) = "fourth day" = Wednesday
  5. Yom Chamishi - יום חמישי (abbr. יום ה׳) = "fifth day" = Thursday
  6. Yom Shishi - יום ששי (abbr. יום ו׳) = "sixth day" = Friday
  7. Yom Shabbat - יום שבת (abbr. יום ש׳) or more usually שבת - Shabbat = "Sabbath day (Rest day)" = Saturday

The Jewish Shabbat has a special role in the Jewish weekly cycle. There are many special rules which relate to the Shabbat, discussed more fully in the Talmudic tractate Shabbat.

The day most commonly referred to as the "New Year" is 1 Tishrei, which actually begins in the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year. On that day the formal New Year festival, Rosh Hashanah ("head of the year") is observed. (see Ezekiel 40:1, which uses the phrase "beginning of the year".) This is the civil new year, and the date on which the year number advances.

"Moses...appointed Nisan...as the first month for the festivals...the commencement of the year for everything relating to divine worship, but for selling and buying and other ordinary affairs he preserved the ancient order [i. e. the year beginning with Tishrei]."

Since the Jewish calendar begins with Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish year always straddles two years from the civil calendar. In other words, spring holidays (such as Pesach and Shavuot) occur in the civil year following Rosh Hashanah.

In Israel, it is an official calendar for civil purposes and provides a time frame for agriculture.

Hebrew Holiday Calendar 2013-2018
Secular Year 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
Jewish Year Hebrew Date 5774 5775 5776 5777 5778
Rosh HaShanah 1-2 Tishrei Sep.5-6 Sep.25-26 Sep.14-15 Oct.3-4 Sep.21-22
Yom Kippur 10 Tishrei Sep.14 Oct.4 Sep.23 Oct.12 Sep.30
Sukkot 15-20 Tishrei Sep.19-25 Oct.9-15 Sep.28-Oct.4 Oct.17-23 Oct.5-11
Shemini Atzeret 22 Tishrei Sep.26 Oct.16 Oct.5 Oct.24 Oct.12
Simchat Torah 23 Tishrei Sep.27 Oct.17 Oct.6 Oct.25 Oct.13
Hanukkah 25 Kislev-
2 Tevet
Dec.17-24 Dec.7-14 Dec.25- Jan.1 Dec.13-20
Tu Bishvat 15 Shevat Jan.16 Feb.4 Jan.25 Feb.11 Jan.31
Purim 15 Adar Mar.16 Mar.5 Mar.24 Mar.12 Mar.1
Pesach 15-21 Nisan Apr.15-22 Apr.4-11 Apr.23-30 Apr.11-18
Mar.31- Apr.7
Yom Ha'Shoah 27 Nisan Apr.27 Apr.16
May 5 Apr.23 Apr.12
Yom Ha'atzmaut 5 Iyar May 6 Apr.23 May 12 May 2 Apr.19
Lag Ba'omer 18 Iyar May 18 May 7 May 26 May 14 May 3
Shavuot 6-7 Sivan June 4-5 May 24-25 June 12-13 May 31-
June 1
May 20-21
Tisha B'Av 9 Av Aug.5 July 26 Aug.14 Aug.1 July 22
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